Great Lakes Piping Plovers
Male or Female?
Male and female Great Lakes Piping Plovers have very similar alternate (breeding) plumages.
The males tend to have bolder and wider neck-bands (though the neck-band width changes with the stance of the bird) and the brow-band goes all the way to the eyes. The male’s bill tends to show more orange and to have a cleaner line between the orange and black.
Male Great Lakes Piping Plovers
Females, conversely, tend to have lighter and narrower neck-bands and the brow-band usually stops just short of the eyes. Her bill-color tends to blend from orange to black.
Female Great Lakes Piping Plovers
The coloration is a continuum and there are birds in the middle range that are difficult to sex by bill and plumage.
Atlantic coast Piping Plovers generally have much lighter markings and the breast band often isn't complete.
Atlantic Coast Piping Plover pair
Breeding behavior is another important clue. Though both sexes share equally in incubation and chick-watching duties, there are behavioral clues to sex. The males set up territories and attract females by doing flight displays, and they do most of the scraping. Both sexes are involved in territorial boundary walking and confrontations. If you observe tilt displays the male will usually be the one fanning out his wings, the male does the “goose-step” courtship display and, of course, if you observe copulation the male is on the female's back.
There are no sex differences in Piping Plovers' basic (non-breeding) plumage.